Ecological Imperialism

History 109 Midterm Study Guide*For the ‘study questions,’ as you probably know through past quizzes, the content of the True/False (and also fill-in-the-blank, and multiple choice questions to be found in your midterm) can be derived from these questions. Furthermore, they could also serve as short essay questions. So work on these study questions accordingly.*For the historical terms, please make sure to define and understand its relation to the main topic at hand (why is this term important for this topic). Many of these terms will likely find its way into the midterm as a ‘fill-in-the-blank’Topic 1: Old World Meets New WorldStudy questions:-what were some ‘paradigm shifts’ that occurred once the Old World and New World established contact? Explain each one briefly.-What is ‘exceptionalism”? Why is this viewpoint important when considering the eventual domination of the New World by Europe?-what is ecological imperialism, and in what ways does it disprove the following ideas: a) “European exceptionalism as justification for domination” ; b) conquest as a contingent (not necessary) event.-What were the motivations behind Spain’s conquest and settlement of the New World? Compare this with the later French and Dutch.-explain the connection between “miscegenation” and the colonial goals of the Spanish in the New World. How would this eventually affect the racial landscape of Latin America?-What is the main argument in the lecture’s discussion of the sale of Manhattan island?historical terms: Las Casas Debate; encomienda system; “civilization” discourse; “middle ground” (what does this thesis argue against?); the “Indians’ New World” (three stages); racial replacement.Textbook questions:- What is the “Black Legend”? How did this figure into later French and Dutch interactions with natives? (Feel free to google the term Black Legend for further explanation; the book should have explained more, I feel-Who were the Huguenots, and what role did they play in French settlement?-How did the French think about miscegenation?-What was the function of the Dutch ‘patroon’ system?-How did the “Hakluyt Tract” disguise English economic motives in the New World?Topic 2: Early English SettlementStudy questions:-In what ways did the English approach to settlement in the New World differ from earlier Europeans? How did such differences go on to shape the ‘American’ worldview?-explain each factor (push and pull) involved in English migration to the New World during the 1600s.-How did early capitalism, the enclosure movement, and Malthusian conditions shape the migration of indentured servants (English voluntary slaves) to the New World?-What were 2 major colonial crises during 17th century colonial America that were discussed in lecture, and how can they be analyzed in terms of race, gender, and/or class?-explain how the Puritan beliefs in predestination and “visible sainthood” connected with the belief in hard work and economic mobility (aka “capitalist ethos”).-discuss the meaning of land in the English worldview during this time, and how this connected to political status.-Compare and contrast the 3 variants of early English settlement in terms of demographics and population, economics, politics (where applicable); religion (where applicable). Hint: think of things like “what kind of agricultural systems did they use”; “what was the ratio between genders”? “which variants had more whole families migrate”? “which variants were more influenced by religion rather than economics”? And others….-explain the details of the economic theory and practice of ‘mercantilism,’ and this connects with rivalry among empires during the Age of European imperialism.Historical Terms: push vs pull factors in human migration (generally-speaking); joint-stock company; indentured servitude; “city upon a hill”; subsistence-plus farming; visible sainthood and predestination; covenant of grace; Anne Hutchinson; Malthusian conditionsTextbook questions:-What are the Navigation Acts? Important: connect the Acts to the theory and practice of ‘mercantilism’ as discussed in lecture.-how was slavery looked at by William Penn and the Quakers in Pennsylvania? What was Penn’s ideal vision for his colony?-Read the primary source titled “Recruiting Settlers to Carolina, 1666” (primary sources are found at the end of the chapter). What was the ‘head-right’ system like for the Carolina region? Why would newly-freed indentured servants want to settle in Carolina? (important: in lecture, I discussed the head-right system in Virginia, so this question asks you to compare both head-right systems).Topic 3: Slavery in VirginiaStudy questions:-distinguish between a ‘slave society’ and ‘society-with-slaves,’ and why this distinction is important in the evolution of slavery in the colonies.-describe the details of the triangular trade system-Describe how Virginia transitioned from a “servant society” (and also a ‘society-with-slaves’) to a slave society in the 1600s, focusing on Virginia lawTerms: racialized slavery; partus sequitur ventrem; perpetual slavery; middle passageTopic; 18th Century English coloniesStudy questions:-describe the enormous change happening in the colonies in terms of population, immigration; new colonies; economics.-the English colonies were marked by many differences between them (this goes back to decentralization); however they did share some unifying experiences across the board. Discuss these shared experiences, showing how they contributed to the process of democratization.-what was the enlightenment, and its core beliefs? What were some English contributions to political philosophy that would eventually influence the American revolution?Historical Terms: Great Awakening, consumerism, natural development; coverture; classical liberalism and republicanism; rule of law; public sphere; Pennsylvania Dutch; Scots Irish

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